Across Southeast Asia, the vast majority of governments have promised to protect and promote Human Rights through various means, but in practice ensuring human rights has proven more challenging. Adopting a Human Rights and Human Security approach to development means ensuring the inherent dignity and equality of all people, and protecting civil and political freedoms. Civil society, together with independent state organizations, such as national human rights institutions, play a crucial role in protecting and promoting human rights and ensuring access to justice and redress. In some cases, human rights defenders may be at risk of being targeted for their work. In a rapidly integrating region, where cross-border trade and investment does not necessarily equate with cross-border responsibility access to justice, the extra-territorial obligations of states has recently emerged as a new focus. In Southeast Asia, new means are needed to ensure that governments and businesses protect and respect human rights and human security, to which this research theme contributes.